Vitamin d supplementation and blood pressure in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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© 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Suboptimal vitamin D status is associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents. Whether vitamin D supplementation reduces BP remains unclear. To systematically review whether vitamin D supplementation reduces BP in children and adolescents, we conducted a literature review according to the PRISMA statement. We included vitamin-D supplementation human interventions studies that reported on BP as an outcome. We searched PUBMED, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the clinical trials website. We also hand searched the references of the included articles and previous reviews of vitamin D therapy. No language or time restrictions were applied. We extracted data on population characteristics, baseline and endline vitamin D and BP values, and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We performed a narrative review of the findings, conducted a meta-analysis when possible, and performed sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our results. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence produced in the meta-analysis. We included eight studies in our review and five studies in the meta-analysis, none of which included hypertensive only participants. The risk of bias was variable. In non-randomized studies, no effect of vitamin D supplementation was seen on systolic BP (SBP) (mean difference: 0.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.9; 1.68) mmHg; p = 0.55; I2 = 0%). Only a significant decrease in diastolic BP (DBP) (mean difference: −1.87 (95% CI: −3.02; −0.72) mmHg; p = 0.001; I2 = 0%) was noted. Both analyses had a low quality of evidence. In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), no effect was noted on SBP (mean difference: −2.04 (95% CI: −5.12; 1.04) mmHg; p = 0.19; I2 = 71%) nor DBP (mean difference: 0.01 (95% CI: −1.09; 1.12) mmHg; p = 0.98; I2 = 0%). The final quality of evidence ranged between low and moderate. Sensitivity analyses did not affect the results. Vitamin D supplementation was found to be ineffective in lowering SBP and DBP in children and adolescents.

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Myriam Abboud, Zayed University