Effects of vitamin d supplementation on lipid profile in adults with the metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, with atherogenic dyslipidemia being a major contributing factor. Methods: A systematic review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement to assess whether vitamin D supplementation (VDS) alleviates dyslipidemia in adults with MetS. Scientific databases (PUBMED, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) and the gray literature were searched for randomized controlled trials of VDS, reporting on blood lipids. A narrative review, meta-analyses, sensitivity analyses, and appraisal of the risk of bias and overall quality of evidence produced were conducted. Results: Seven studies were included, and four were meta-analyzed. The risk of bias was generally low, and the final quality of evidence was low or very low. VDS, whether in high or low dose, significantly increased endline vitamin D blood levels; did not affect total, low-density, high-density cholesterol levels, and novel lipid-related biomarkers; yet, significantly increased triglycerides (TG) levels compared with placebo (MD: 30.67 (95%CI: 4.89– 56.45) mg/dL; p = 0.02 for low-dose VDS; and MD: 27.33 (95%CI: 2.06–52.59) mg/dL; p = 0.03 for high-dose VDS). Pertaining heterogeneity was high (I2 = 86%; and I2 = 51%, respectively), and some included studies had significantly higher baseline TG in the intervention arm. The sensitivity analyses revealed robust results. Conclusion: VDS seems not to affect blood lipids in adults with MetS.

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