Sleep duration is associated with vitamin D deficiency in older women living in Macao, China: A pilot cross-sectional study

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© 2020 Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Chinese women are known to have both a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) /l). Associations between sleep duration and circulating 25OHD have recently been reported but, to our knowledge, these associations have not been studied in older Chinese populations. We thus investigated whether sleep duration was associated with vitamin D status in a population from Macao, China, and whether sleep duration modified the association between MetS and vitamin D deficiency. In 207 older (>55 years) Macanese, anthropometry, blood samples and validated questionnaires, including sleep duration and cardiovascular risk factors, were simultaneously collected. On multivariable categorical analyses, those women, not men, who had short sleep duration (≤6 hours (h)) were at a 2-fold risk for vitamin D deficiency (both /L and /L; OR = 1.94, 95%CI 1.29-2.92; OR = 2.05, 95%CI 1.06-3.98, respectively) and those who had longer sleep duration (>8 h) were 3-fold more likely to have vitamin D deficiency (OR = 3.07, 95%CI 1.47-6.39; OR = 2.75, 95%CI 1.08- 7.00, respectively) compared to those with normal sleep duration (6-8 h). Both women and men with MetS were 2-fold more likely to have vitamin D deficiency (women: OR = 2.04, 95%CI 1.31-3.17; OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.11-4.17, respectively; men: OR = 2.01, 95%CI 1.23-3.28; OR = 2.04, 95%CI 1.00-4.29, respectively). Moreover, women with both short sleep duration and MetS had an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency (OR = 3.26, 95%CI 1.10-9.64). These associations were not found in those with longer sleep. Men with longer sleep and MetS had a 5-fold risk of vitamin D deficiency (OR = 5.22; 95%CI 2.70-10.12). This association was non-significant for men with shorter sleep. We conclude that both short and long sleep duration were associated with vitamin D deficiency in older Chinese women. Further research is needed in larger cohorts or with intervention studies to further examine the associations between reduced sleep, metabolic syndrome and vitamin D deficiency.

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