Effect of Losing Nitrogen Fertilizers on Living Organism and Ecosystem, and Prevention Approaches of their Harmful Effect
The world's population is drastically increasing; therefore, an enormous amount of nitrogen and other fertilizers are used to produce enough food for their feeding. Furthermore, since the applied nitrogen amount is not completely absorbed by plants, its big proportion is released to the environment in different ways. The released nitrogen amount damages both humans' health and the environment. Some technical and agronomical techniques help to minimize the loss of this nitrogen. The fertilizer's loss not only affects farmers' economic condition, but their effects are integrated. Nitrogen fertilizers pollute water, soil, air, as well as our foods. Leaching nitrate can cause eutrophication in sea, lakes, and water bodies. This condition poses a big threat to the lives of fish and other aquatic organisms. It also causes various diseases in humans such as blue baby syndrome, carcinoma, and others. For instance, Nitrate-N (NO3-N) leads to the blue baby syndrome, carcinoma, and other diseases in humans. NO3-N leaching stimulates the growth of blue-green algae and creates hypoxic zones in the water. Moreover, cyanobacteria produce toxins that affect the liver`, kidney, brain, skin, and other parts of the human body, as well as cause complicated diseases. Ammonia and nitrogen oxides contribute to acid rains and have adverse effects on ecosystems. Nitrous oxides (Nâ‚‚O) deplete the ozone layer, a layer that prevents harmful rays from reaching the earth. Nâ‚‚O contributes extremely to global warming due to its potentiality. Although Nitrogen fertilizers have contributed to produce high yields in the world, their excessive application has created different problems in our environment. To reduce nitrogen leaching, some agronomical, technical, and other practices are required to be used in the large and small farming system.