Households' flood vulnerability and adaptation: Empirical evidence from mountainous regions of Pakistan
Abstract Households' vulnerability assessment is considered an essential step towards reducing the harmful consequences of disaster risks. Adaptation helps in reducing their future vulnerability. The aims of this study are to (1) assess the different components of vulnerability, (2) compare the individual components and the composite vulnerability between the two regions and (3)assess the households' adaptation to floods. Data were collected from 382 households and statistical tests were applied for comparison among these households living in two regions. A total of 32 and 17 indicators were used for vulnerability and adaptation assessment respectively. Results revealed that social, economic, physical and institutional components of vulnerability were found higher in Region 1 than Region 2. Except for social and attitudinal vulnerability, all the other vulnerability components had significant differences. Similarly, the overall composite vulnerability was higher in Region 1 than Region 2 and statistically significant. Moreover, in both regions, informal adaptation was mostly practiced compared to formal adaptation. Thus, it is recommended that the government and non-governmental stakeholders provide options and facilitation for formal adaptation at the community level.