Neuroprotective effects of melatonin and celecoxib against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration: a computational and pharmacological approach.
Purpose Melatonin and celecoxib are antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents that exert protective effects in different experimental models. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of melatonin and celecoxib were demonstrated against ethanol-induced neuronal injury by in silico, morphological, and biochemical approaches. Methods For the in silico study, 3-D structures were constructed and docking analysis performed. For in vivo studies, rats were treated with ethanol, melatonin, and celecoxib. Brain samples were collected for biochemical and morphological analysis. Results Homology modeling was performed to build 3-D structures for IL1Î²), TNFÎ±, TLR4, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Structural refinement was achieved via molecular dynamic simulation and processed for docking and postdocking analysis. Further in vivo experiments showed that ethanol induced marked neuronal injury characterized by downregulated glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, and upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, ethanol increased the expression of TNFÎ± and IL1Î². Finally, neuronal apoptosis was demonstrated in ethanol-intoxicated animals using caspase 3 and activated JNK staining. On the other hand, melatonin and celecoxib treatment ameliorated the biochemical and immunohistochemical alterations induced by ethanol. Conclusion These results demonstrated that ethanol induced neurodegeneration by activating inflammatory and apoptotic proteins in rat brain, while melatonin and celecoxib may protect rat brain by downregulating inflammatory and apoptotic markers.