THE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF URINARY TRACT STONES IN KHOST, AFGHANISTAN
Background: The urinary tract stones include renal (nephrolithiasis), ureter (ureterolithiasis), and urinary bladder stones (cystolithiasis). The knowledge of the mineral composition of the urinary tract stone is important for the treatment, patient education, and to develop preventative strategies. Aim: This study aims to characterize the proportion of different types of urinary tract stones and their chemical composition in Khost province. Material and Methods: A retrospective, the hospital-based study design was used. The stones were analyzed using simple qualitative biochemical tests. A total of 63 patients were included in this study from Sept 2016 to Aug 2019. The stones were checked for the presence of calcium, magnesium, ammonium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid, and cystine. Results: The results obtained showed the incidence of the kidney (48 stones), ureteric (4 stones), urinary bladder (11 stones) at the age group of 18-75 years (mean 56.2). The incidence in men was higher than women, male to female ratio being 3:1. The chemical analysis of overall stones has shown that 88.21% had mixed compositions, and 11.79% presented a unique composition. The majority of stones obtained from women was cystine (70%) and oxalate (72%) stones, whereas the majority of stones in men were that of calcium oxalate (76%) and uric acid (74%) stones. Eight of the stones were pure of calcium oxalate, five were pure uric acid, 7 were pure cystine, and 43 were mixed stones. Among the mixed stones, oxalate was present in 32 samples (43 of total), calcium was present in 36 samples, uric acid was seen in 17, phosphate was present in 23, and cysteine was present in 14 stones. Conclusion: This study showed that the most common type of mineral composition found in different urinary stones is calcium oxalate (81%), followed by cystine and uric acid. Further broader and large scale studies are required to assess the mineral base of the urinary tract stones in Afghanistan to develop preventive strategies and promote public awareness about dietary recommendations.