Document Type

Article

Source of Publication

Journal of Inflammation Research

Publication Date

4-1-2021

Abstract

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating human health condition characterized by mood swings and is associated with a high probability of suicide attempts. Several studies have reported a role of neuroinflammation in MMD, yet the efficacy of natural drug substances on neuroinflammation-associated depression has not been well-investigated. The present study examined the neuroprotective effects of carvacrol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation, depression, and anxiety-like behavior. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two experimental cohorts to determine the effects and the effective dose of carvacrol (whether 20 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg), and further demonstrate the mechanism of action of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) in depression. Results We found marked neuronal alterations in the cortex and hippocampus of LPS-intoxicated animals that were associated with higher inflammatory cytokine expression such as cyclooxygenase (COX2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). These detrimental effects exacerbated oxidative stress, as documented by a compromised antioxidant system due to high lipid peroxidase (LPO). Carvacrol (20 mg/kg) significantly reverted these changes by positively modulating the antioxidant gene Nrf2, a master regulator of the downstream antioxidant pathway. To further investigate the role of Nrf2, an inhibitor of Nrf2 called all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was used, which further exacerbated LPS toxicity with a higher oxidative and inflammatory cytokine level. To further support our notion, we performed virtual docking of carvacrol with the Nrf2-Keap1 target and the resultant drug-protein interactions validated the in vivo findings. Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggest that carvacrol (20 mg/kg) could activate the endogenous master antioxidant Nrf2, which further regulates the expression of downstream antioxidants, eventually ameliorating LPS-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

Publisher

Taylor & Francis

Volume

14

First Page

1313

Last Page

1329

Disciplines

Medicine and Health Sciences

Keywords

Carvacrol, Depression, Lipopolysaccharide, Neurodegeneration, Neuroinflammation, Nrf2 pathway

Scopus ID

85104637208

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Indexed in Scopus

yes

Open Access

yes

Open Access Type

Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series

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