Document Type


Source of Publication

Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

Publication Date



Synthetically designed alternative photorespiratory pathways increase the biomass of tobacco and rice plants. Likewise, some in planta–tested synthetic carbon-concentrating cycles (CCCs) hold promise to increase plant biomass while diminishing atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. Taking these individual contributions into account, we hypothesize that the integration of bypasses and CCCs will further increase plant productivity. To test this in silico, we reconstructed a metabolic model by integrating photorespiration and photosynthesis with the synthetically designed alternative pathway 3 (AP3) enzymes and transporters. We calculated fluxes of the native plant system and those of AP3 combined with the inhibition of the glycolate/glycerate transporter by using the YANAsquare package. The activity values corresponding to each enzyme in photosynthesis, photorespiration, and for synthetically designed alternative pathways were estimated. Next, we modeled the effect of the crotonyl-CoA/ethylmalonyl-CoA/hydroxybutyryl-CoA cycle (CETCH), which is a set of natural and synthetically designed enzymes that fix CO₂ manifold more than the native Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle. We compared estimated fluxes across various pathways in the native model and under an introduced CETCH cycle. Moreover, we combined CETCH and AP3-w/plgg1RNAi, and calculated the fluxes. We anticipate higher carbon dioxide–harvesting potential in plants with an AP3 bypass and CETCH–AP3 combination. We discuss the in vivo implementation of these strategies for the improvement of C3 plants and in natural high carbon harvesters.




Life Sciences


CO2-sequestration, photorespiration, elementary modes, synthetic pathways, carboxylation, metabolic modeling, CETCH cycle

Scopus ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Indexed in Scopus


Open Access


Open Access Type

Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series

Included in

Life Sciences Commons