Chapter 5 Groundwater

Author First name, Last name, Institution

Abdel-Mohsen Onsy Mohamed
Evan K. Paleologos

Document Type

Book Chapter

Source of Publication

Fundamentals of Geoenvironmental Engineering

Publication Date



This chapter presents an introduction to the basic concepts and developments in the study of flow of water in the subsurface environment. The importance of groundwater as a natural freshwater reserve and for the public health is initially described. The relation between groundwater extraction and land subsidence is discussed, as well as the problems of coastal saltwater intrusion. Subsequently, an exposition is presented of the basic groundwater flow equations that include Darcy's law and the continuity equation. Flow in fractured rocks is briefly discussed together with the cubic law that describes the velocity in such media. The concept of the effective hydraulic conductivity is introduced through the flow in stratified aquifers, followed by the mathematical exposition of one-dimensional (1-D) flow in confined and unconfined aquifers. Applications are provided for the cases of flow through earth dams, aquifers under rain, and groundwater flow to streams. The final part of this chapter introduces some basic concepts and solutions from well hydraulics. Steady-state flow to wells in confined and unconfined aquifer, the method of images, and De Glee's solution for leaky aquifers are presented. The chapter concludes with an exposition of issues related to construction dewatering.




Hydrogeol. J. 16 2008


Earth Sciences | Environmental Sciences | Geography

Indexed in Scopus


Open Access