Gauging the Effectiveness of Educational Technology Integration in Education: What the Best-Quality Meta-Analyses Tell Us

Author First name, Last name, Institution

Robert M. Bernard
Eugene Borokhovski
Richard F. Schmid
Rana M. Tamim

Document Type

Book Chapter

Source of Publication

Learning, Design, and Technology

Publication Date



This chapter examines quantitative research in the literature of technology integration in education from the perspective of the meta-analyses of primary studies conducted from 1982 to 2015. The intent is to identify and review the best of these meta-analyses. Fifty-two meta-analyses were originally identified and evaluated for methodological quality using the Meta-Analysis Methodological Quality Review Guide (MMQRG), and the best 20 were selected and are included for review here. Some describe the effects of technology integration within specific content areas and some are more general. Technology integration in education is one of the most fluid areas of research, reflecting the incredible pace of the evolution of computer-based tools and applications. Just navigating through the vast primary empirical literature presents a real challenge to those interested in evaluating the educational effectiveness of technology. Systematic reviews in the field are numerous and quite diverse in their methodological quality, introducing potential bias in the interpretation of findings (Bernard RM, Borokhovski E, Schmid RF, Tamim RM. J Comput High Educ 26(3):183–209, 2014), thus bringing into question their applied value. This chapter identifies and reviews the best of these meta-analyses. In addition to overall statistical analyses of this collection, the findings of six of the most recent and best meta-analyses (after 2010) are summarized in more detail. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of the current findings, considers future alternatives to primary research in this area, and examines how meta-analysts might address them.


Springer Nature



Indexed in Scopus


Open Access