Document Type


Source of Publication

IEEE Access

Publication Date



© 2013 IEEE. Mobile learning (M-learning) has gained tremendous attention in the educational environment in the past decade. For effective M-learning, it is important to create an efficient M-learning model that can identify the exact requirements of mobile learners (M-learners). M-learning model is composed of features that are generated during M-learners' interaction with mobile devices. For an adaptive M-learning model, not only learning features are required, but it is also important to determine how they differ for various M-learners, their weights, and interrelationship. This study proposes a robust and adaptive M-learning model that is based on machine learning and deep learning (ML/DL) techniques. The proposed M-learning model dynamically explores learning features, their corresponding weights, and association for M-learners. Based on learning features, the M-learning model categorizes M-learners into different performance groups. The M-learning model then provides adaptive content, suggestions, and recommendations to M-learners in order to make learning adaptive and stimulating. For comparative analysis, the prediction accuracy of five baseline ML models was compared with the deep Artificial Neural Network (deep ANN). The results demonstrated that deep ANN and Random Forest (RF) models exhibited better prediction accuracy. Subsequently, both models were selected for developing the M-learning model which included the performance categorization of M-learners under a five-level classification scheme and assigning weights to various features for providing adaptive help and support to M-learners. Our explanatory analysis has shown that behavioral features besides contextual features also influence the learning performance of M-learners. As a direct outcome of this research, more efficient, interactive, and useful mobile learning applications can be developed that accurately predict learning objectives and requirements of diverse M-learners thus helping M-learners in enhancing their study behavior.




Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.



First Page


Last Page



Computer Sciences


adaptive M-learning, deep learning, Deep neural networks, early engagement, feature weights, learners' classification, machine learning

Scopus ID


Indexed in Scopus


Open Access


Open Access Type

Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series