A novel route for catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate by oxygen vacancies improved bismuth-doped titania for the removal of recalcitrant organic contaminant

Author First name, Last name, Institution

Ikhtiar Gul
Murtaza Sayed
Noor S. Shah

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

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In this work, bismuth-doped titania (BixTiO2) with improved oxygen vacancies was synthesized by sol-gel protocol as a novel peroxymonosulfate (PMS, HSO5−) activator. HSO5− and adsorbed oxygen molecules could efficiently be transformed into their respective radicals through defect ionization to attain charge balance after their trapping on oxygen vacancies of the catalyst. XRD study of BixTiO2 with 5 wt% Bi (5BiT) revealed anatase, crystalline nature, and successful doping of Bi into TiO2 crystal lattice. The particle size obtained from BET data and SEM observations was in good agreement. PL spectra showed the formation rates of •OH by 3BiT, 7BiT, 5BiTC, and 5BiT as 0.720, 1.200, 1.489, and 2.153 μmol/h, respectively. 5BiT catalyst with high surface area (216.87 m2 g−1) and high porosity (29.81%) was observed the excellent HSO5− activator. The catalytic performance of 0BiT, 3BiT, 5BiT, and 7BiT when coupled with 2 mM HSO5− for recalcitrant flumequine (FLU) removal under dark was 10, 27, 55, and 37%, respectively. Only 5.4% decrease in catalytic efficiency was observed at the end of seventh cyclic run. Radical scavenging studies indicate that SO4•− is the dominant species that caused 62.0% degradation. Moreover, strong interaction between Bi and TiO2 through Bi-O-Ti bonds prevents Bi leaching (0.081 mg L−1) as shown by AAS. The kinetics, degradation pathways, ecotoxicity, and catalytic mechanism for recalcitrant FLU were also elucidated. Cost-efficient, environment-friendly, and high mineralization recommends this design strategy; BixTiO2/HSO5− system is a promising advanced oxidation process for the aquatic environment remediation.




Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH

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Physical Sciences and Mathematics


Bismuth-doped titania, Flumequine, HSO5− activation under dark, Oxygen vacancy, Water treatment

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Open Access