Document Type


Source of Publication

IEEE Access

Publication Date



© 2013 IEEE. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition that affects the central nervous system and represents 60% to 70% of all dementia cases. Due to an increased aging population, the number of patients diagnosed with AD is expected to exceed 131 million worldwide by 2050. The disease is characterized by various clinical symptoms and pathological features that define three main sequential decline stages, namely, early/mild, intermediate/moderate and late/severe stages. Although it is considered irreversible, early diagnosis of AD is highly desirable to help preserve cognitive function. However, early diagnosis is difficult due to different factors, including the patient-specific development of AD. The main contribution of the proposed work is to present a personalized (i.e., local/brain regional) computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for early diagnosis of AD from two perspectives, functional and structural to assist diagnosis. In other words, the proposed system uniquely yields local/regional diagnosis by combining 11C PiB positron emission tomography (11C PiB PET), which provides functional diagnosis, with structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), which provides structural diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to combine sMRI and the 11C PiB PET for local/regional early diagnosis of AD. The system processes the two modalities through a number of steps: Pre-processing, brain labeling (parcellation), feature extraction, and diagnosis. A local/regional diagnosis is presented for each modality separately, followed by the final global diagnosis obtained by integrating the results from the two modalities. Evaluation of the proposed system shows average results of 97.5%, 100%, and 96.77% for accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity, respectively. With further development, it is envisioned that this system could contribute to the early diagnosis of AD in the clinical setting.




Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)



First Page


Last Page



Computer Sciences


Alzheimer's disease, C PiB PET, MCI, personalized diagnosis, sMRI

Scopus ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Indexed in Scopus


Open Access


Open Access Type

Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series