Document Type


Source of Publication

IEEE Access

Publication Date



At the advanced stage of Parkinson’s disease, patients may suffer from ‘freezing of gait’ episodes: a debilitating condition wherein a patient’s “feet feel as though they are glued to the floor”. The objective, continuous monitoring of the gait of Parkinson’s disease patients with wearable devices has led to the development of many freezing of gait detection models involving the automatic cueing of a rhythmic auditory stimulus to shorten or prevent episodes. The use of thresholding and manually extracted features or feature engineering returned promising results. However, these approaches are subjective, time-consuming, and prone to error. Furthermore, their performance varied when faced with the different walking styles of Parkinson’s disease patients. Inspired by state-of-art deep learning techniques, this research aims to improve the detection model by proposing a feature learning deep denoising autoencoder to learn the salient characteristics of Parkinsonian gait data that is applicable to different walking styles for the elimination of manually handcrafted features. Even with the elimination of manually handcrafted features, a reduction in half of the data window sizes to 2s, and a significant dimensionality reduction of learned features, the detection model still managed to achieve 90.94% sensitivity and 67.04% specificity, which is comparable to the original Daphnet dataset research.


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)


Computer Sciences


Data models, denoising autoencoder, Diseases, Feature extraction, freezing of gait, Legged locomotion, Parkinson’s disease, Sensitivity, Sensor phenomena and characterization, Support vector machines, unsupervised learning

Scopus ID


Indexed in Scopus


Open Access


Open Access Type

Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series