Sustainable green nanoadsorbents for remediation of pharmaceuticals from water and wastewater: A critical review

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Environmental Research

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In the last three decades, pharmaceutical research has increased tremendously to offer safe and healthy life. However, the high consumption of these harmful drugs has risen devastating impact on ecosystems. Therefore, it is worldwide paramount concern to effectively clean pharmaceuticals contaminated water streams to ensure safer environment and healthier life. Nanotechnology enables to produce new, high-technical material, such as membranes, adsorbent, nano-catalysts, functional surfaces, coverages and reagents for more effective water and wastewater cleanup processes. Nevertheless, nano-sorbent materials are regarded the most appropriate treatment technology for water and wastewater because of their facile application and a large number of adsorbents. Several conventional techniques have been operational for domestic wastewater treatment but are inefficient for pharmaceuticals removal. Alternatively, adsorption techniques have played a pivotal role in water and wastewater treatment for a long, but their rise in attraction is proportional with the continuous emergence of new micropollutants in the aquatic environment and new discoveries of sustainable and low-cost adsorbents. Recently, advancements in adsorption technique for wastewater treatment through nanoadsorbents has greatly increased due to its low production cost, sustainability, better physicochemical properties and high removal performance for pharmaceuticals. Herein, this review critically evaluates the performance of sustainable green nanoadsorbent for the remediation of pharmaceutical pollutants from water. The influential sorption parameters and interaction mechanism are also discussed. Moreover, the future prospects of nanoadsorbents for the remediation of pharmaceuticals are also presented.



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Open Access