Source of Publication
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Waterpipe smoke (WPS) is the second most prevalent form of smoking in the world. There are ample evidences about the vascular alterations caused by regular WPS (Reg-WPS). Nonetheless, comparison of the chronic vascular response induced by regular versus occasional WPS (Occ-WPS) exposure is very scarce. METHODS: We investigated, in BALB/c mice, the effects of Occ-WPS (30 minutes/day, 1 day/week) versus Reg-WPS (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week) for 6 months on thrombogenicity and platelet aggregation in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, various markers of endothelial integrity, inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric assay. Control mice were exposed to air. RESULTS: Our results showed that either Occ-WPS or Reg-WPS exposure shortened the thrombotic time in pial microvessels in vivo. Moreover, in pial venules, this effect was more marked in Reg-WPS group (-47%) compared with Occ-WPS (-34%). Similarly, exposure to either Occ-WPS or Reg-WPS reduced the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Platelet count was increased only in Reg-WPS exposure. Exposure to either Occ-WPS or Reg-WPS induced platelet aggregation in vitro. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between Occ-WPS and Reg-WPS groups in platelet count and aggregation. Plasma concentration of tissue factor (+98%), P-selectin (+14%) and E-selectin (+16%) were significantly increased in Occ-WPS group compared with air exposed group. Likewise, compared with air group Reg-WPS caused an increase in concentration of tissue factor (+193%), P-selectin (+21%) and E-selectin (+42%). Nevertheless, only Reg-WPS induced a decrease (-38%) in the plasma concentration of tissue plasminogen activator. Notably, our results showed a statistically significant difference between Occ-WPS and Reg-WPS groups in the concentration of tissue factor. Erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and lactate dehydrogenase activity were augmented only in Reg-WPS group compared with either control or Occ-WPS groups. Likewise, only Reg-WPS induced an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β compared with either control or Occ-WPS groups. However, markers of oxidative stress including 8-isoprostane and total antioxidants were enhanced in both Occ-WPS and Reg-WPS compared with control group. CONCLUSION: Our data confirm the vascular toxicity of the chronic Reg-WPS exposure and shows that even occasional chronic exposure to WPS caused thrombosis, platelet aggregation, endothelial alterations and oxidative stress. The latter findings are an additional cause of concern about the long-term toxicity of occasional waterpipe smoking.
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Hamadi, Naserddine; Beegam, Sumaya; Zaaba, Nur Elena; Elzaki, Ozaz; Ali, Badreldin H; and Nemmar, Abderrahim, "Comparative Study on the Chronic Vascular Responses Induced by Regular Versus Occasional Waterpipe Smoke Inhalation in Mice" (2022). All Works. 4834.
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