Evaluating the accessibility of a PoN-enabled misuse case notation by the red–green colorblind community

Author First name, Last name, Institution

Mohamed El-Attar, Zayed University

Document Type


Source of Publication

Software and Systems Modeling

Publication Date



In 2015, an improved version of the misuse case modeling notation designed using the Physics of Notations (PoN) framework was proposed. Empirical data support that the new notation is more cognitively effective than the original notation. The new notation makes use of color, in particular, red and green, meaning that red–green colorblind community will not be able to view the notation as designed and intended. The cognitive effectiveness of the red–green deficient (RGD) version of the new notation in comparison to the original notation is unknown. The PoN outlines a number of principles that can be satisfied with or without the use of color, but would the deficiency of color may be so inhibiting that the cognitive effectiveness superiority of the PoN-enabled misuse case notation becomes diminished? Perhaps the original use case notation would be more cognitively effective for red–green colorblind users. An empirical study using 84 IT (Information Technology) professionals is conducted to assess the cognitive effectiveness of the RGD version of the PoN-enabled misuse case notation in comparison to the original misuse case notation. The experiment data are analyzed for any statistically significant findings. The quantitative and qualitative results of the experiment indicate that the RGD version of PoN-enabled misuse case notation maintains its cognitive effectiveness superiority over the original notation. The results also show that the subjects are divided in their opinions with respect to the aesthetic appeal of the two notations. Adhering to the complete set of principles outlined in the PoN has allowed the new notation to maintain its cognitive effectiveness superiority over the original notation despite a curtailed color perspective.



Springer Science and Business Media LLC

First Page


Last Page



Computer Sciences


Misuse case notation, Visual syntax, Cognitive effectiveness, UML, Red–green colorblindness

Indexed in Scopus


Open Access