Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWs) is an Innovative Approach for the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Contaminated Water

Document Type


Source of Publication

Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

Publication Date



Globally, water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons are under much consideration due to their hazardous effects on human beings as well as on plants and animals in the ecosystem. Petroleum hydrocarbons are classified as recalcitrant pollutants in nature. These petroleum products are mostly released in the water resources during the petroleum refining process by oil refineries. The conventional clean-up technologies for hydrocarbons contaminated water have more destructive effects on the aquatic and land ecosystems. Consequently, to develop cost-effective and more environment-friendly techniques that clean up the environment and restore the marine ecosystem to its original forms. Keeping in view, this review article explores the detailed information on fabrication, cost-effectiveness, and an overview of innovation of the floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) using plants and bacterial combined functions to remediate the petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated water. The review also discusses the improvement of microbial efficacy for hydrocarbon degradation using FTWs. The review article shows the various applications of FTWs to remove different organic pollutants in petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated water. The review also describes the prospective benefits of FTWs for their multiple uses for removal of hydrocarbons, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), phenol, and solids from hydrocarbons contaminated water. This review widely discusses the role of hydrocarbons in degrading bacteria, and wetland plants and the mechanism involved during the remediation process of hydrocarbons in FTWs. It further demonstrates features disturbing the treatment efficiency of FTWs, and finally, it is concluded by successful applications of FTWs and various suggestions for potential future research prospects. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]




Springer Science and Business Media LLC


Life Sciences


Bacteria, Degradation, Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs), Petroleum hydrocarbons, Water, Wetland plants

Scopus ID


Indexed in Scopus


Open Access