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This systematic review with metanalysis evaluated and analyzed the beneficial effects of certain plants food in type 2 diabetes (T2D) when consumed alone or in combination with chitosan. The main objective of the paper was to examine the relation of chitosan nanogel and mixed food plant (MFP) to control T2D. The databases included Medline, Scopus, PubMed, as well as Cochrane available between the month of January 1990 to January 2021. The eligibility criteria for selecting studies were case-controlled studies that included unripe plantain, bitter yam, okra, and chitosan either used-alone or in combination with non-specified food plants (NSFP). Two-fold autonomous critics retrieved the information required and evaluated the risk of bias of involved studies. Random-effect meta-analyses on blood glucose controls, were performed. Results of 18 studies included: seven that examined unripe plantains, one bitter yam, two okras, and eight chitosan, found regarding the decrease in blood glucose level. Meta-analysis of the results found a large proportion of I2 values for all studies (98%), meaning heterogeneity. As a consequence, the combined effect sizes were not useful. Instead, prediction interval (PI) was used (mean difference 4.4 mg/dL, 95% PI −6.65 to 15.50 and mean difference 3.4 mg/dL, 95% PI −23.65 to 30.50) rather than the estimate of its confidence interval (CI). These studies were at 50% high risk of bias and 50% low risk of bias and there was judged to be an unclear risk of bias due to the insufficient information from the included study protocol (moderately low). The intervention lasted between three and 84 days, indicating potency and effectiveness of the intervention at both short and long durations. Due to the moderately low quality of the studies, the findings were cautiously interpreted. In conclusion, the current evidence available from the study does support the relation of chitosan with mixed unripe plantain, bitter yam and okra for the management of T2D. Further high-quality case-controlled animal studies are required to substantiate if indeed chitosan nanogel should be cross-linked with the specified food plant (SFP) for the management T2D.










Medicine and Health Sciences


bitter yam, case-controlled study, chitosan, okra, T2D, unripe plantain

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series