Chapter 5 Mineral carbonation

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Book Chapter

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Sustainable Utilization of Carbon Dioxide in Waste Management

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In this chapter, accelerated carbonation technology (ACT) is discussed. Both direct and indirect carbonation processes used in the ACT are highlighted, emphasizing using the alkaline solid waste materials as the feedstock for the carbonation. The principles of accelerated carbonation reaction in view of process chemistry, ion equilibrium in solution, carbonate precipitation, formation of solid carbonates, calcite crystal growth, the thermodynamic stability of formed products, and modeling of reaction kinetics are discussed.rnFactors that affect the carbonation efficiency such as surface activation, flue gas characteristics, nature of the carbonation reactor, the reacting media, and the product themselves are discussed. The following carbonated products are identified and discussed: (a) carbonates-based minerals (soda ash, calcium carbonates, bicarbonate, magnesium carbonates, iron carbonates, etc.); (b) hydroxides-based chemicals, such as calcium and sodium hydroxides; (c) minerals such as hydro-magnesite, calcite, halite, and dolomite that can be used as cementitious materials for cement-based concrete materials; (d) other minerals such as nesquehonite, lansfordite, dypingite and artinite that can be used as aggregates and cementitious materials; (e) chloride-based chemicals, such as HCl, NaOCl, or chlorine-based polymers, such as PVC; and (f) hydrogen.rnThe possible utilization of the carbonated products, such as lower- and higher-end calcium carbonate products, mono-dispersed nanoparticles, silica, and the whole carbonated solid alkaline waste materials, are discussed. Finally, life cycle assessments of several alkaline solid wastes, including ultra-fine (UF) slag, fly-ash (FA) slag, and blended hydraulic slag cement (BHC), in an autoclave reactor are discussed.





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Environmental Engineering | Environmental Sciences


Acids, Aggregates, And sulfur concrete, Biomaterials, Carbon dioxide concentration, Catalysts, Chromatography, Circuit boards, CO2concentration, Degree of hydration, Deoxidizers, Dissolution rate, Heat, Liquid-to-solid ratio, Magnetic separation, Mechanical grinding, Partial pressure, Passivating layer, pharmaceutical, Semiconductors, Solution pH, Sonication, Steam, Sulfur cement, Supersaturation, Temperature, Utilization of carbonated products

Indexed in Scopus


Open Access