Chapter 6 Carbonation technologies

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Book Chapter

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Sustainable Utilization of Carbon Dioxide in Waste Management

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This chapter discusses some selected carbonation processes to identify the stage at which each technology is ready for implementation by using the nine Technology Readiness Levels Available technologies that implemented the multistep aqueous carbonation processes were discussed. These technologies were divided into two groups. The first deals with technologies for natural serpentine carbonation, such as the Nottingham University process (TRL3), the Åbo Akademi process (TRL3), the Shell process (TRL7), and the US National Energy Technology Laboratory process (TRL3); while, the second deals with technologies for alkaline waste carbonation (AWC) such as The High Gravity Carbonation (HiGCarb) pilot-scale project in Taiwan (TRL3) for Basic Oxygen Furnace slag, and Mohamed and El-Gamal's Fluidization (MGF) Process (TRL6) for variety of AWC such as cement Kiln dust (CKD), fly ash, and steel slags. Five case studies for the use of the MGF process were presented. These are (a) CKD; (b) EAF steel slag; (c) manufacturing of sewerage pipes from (i) bitumen-based modified elemental sulfur, (ii) crushed sand, dune sand, and carbonated Ladle Furnace (LF) slag as aggregate material; and (iii) carbonated ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGFBS) as a filler; (d) demonstration in actual underground sewerage environment for ordinary Portland cements concrete, as a reference, sulfate resistance cement concrete, and two types of sulfur concrete, one of which was manufactured with modified sulfur cement as well as carbonated fly ash; and (e) demonstration in saline, and variable acidic environments, whereby the products were manufactured using elemental sulfur, modified sulfur cement, sand, and carbonated CKD using the MGF process. Details regarding hydration mechanisms, factors that control the hydration process, optimum operating conditions for the hydration process, carbonation processes, degree of sequestration, and optimum carbonation parameters were discussed. Carbonated products were evaluated using X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the potential leachability and long-term stability of carbonated products were evaluated.





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Environmental Engineering | Environmental Sciences


Alkaline waste carbonation, Cement Kiln dust, Durability, Fly ash and steel slags, Ground granulated blast furnace slag, High Gravity Carbonation, Long-term stability, Mohamed and El-Gamal, Mohamed and El-Gamal's Fluidization (MGF) Process, National Energy Technology Laboratory process, Nottingham University (NU) process, Nottingham University process, Optimum carbonation parameters, Scanning electron microscopy, Shell process, Steel slag, Technology readiness levels, Technology Readiness Levels, Thermo-gravimetric analysis, Å, Åbo Akademi (AA) process

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Open Access