Document Type


Source of Publication

Biological Trace Element Research

Publication Date



The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is characterized by worsened inflammation because of weakened immunity, causing the infiltration of immune cells, followed by necrosis. Consequently, these pathophysiological changes may lead to a life-threatening decline in perfusion due to hyperplasia of the lungs, instigating severe pneumonia, and causing fatalities. Additionally, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause mortality due to viral septic shock, resulting from unrestrained and backfiring immune reactions to the pathogen. Sepsis can cause premature organ failure in COVID-19 patients, as well. Notably, vitamin D and its derivatives and minerals, such as zinc and magnesium, have been reported to improve the immune system against respiratory illnesses. This comprehensive review aims to provide updated mechanistic details of vitamin D and zinc as immunomodulators. Additionally, this review also focuses on their role in respiratory illnesses, while specifically delineating the plausibility of employing them as a preventive and therapeutic agent against current and future pandemics from an immunological perspective. Furthermore, this comprehensive review will attract the attention of health professionals, nutritionists, pharmaceuticals, and scientific communities, as it encourages the use of such micronutrients for therapeutic purposes, as well as promoting their health benefits for a healthy lifestyle and wellbeing.




Springer Science and Business Media LLC


Medicine and Health Sciences


Adaptive immunity, COVID-19, Innate immunity, SARS-CoV-2, Vitamin D, Zinc

Scopus ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Indexed in Scopus


Open Access


Open Access Type

Hybrid: This publication is openly available in a subscription-based journal/series