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Frontiers in Nutrition

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Background Of around 2 billion Muslims worldwide, approximately 1.5 billion observe Ramadan fasting (RF) month. Those that observe RF have diverse cultural, ethnic, social, and economic backgrounds and are distributed over a wide geographical area. Sleep is known to be significantly altered during the month of Ramadan, which has a profound impact on human health. Moreover, sleep is closely connected to dietary and lifestyle behaviors. Methods This cross-sectional study collected data using a structured, self-administered electronic questionnaire that was translated into 13 languages and disseminated to Muslim populations across 27 countries. The questionnaire assessed dietary and lifestyle factors as independent variables, and three sleep parameters (quality, duration, and disturbance) as dependent variables. We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine how dietary and lifestyle factors affected these sleep parameters. Results In total, 24,541 adults were enrolled in this study. SEM analysis revealed that during RF, optimum sleep duration (7–9 h) was significantly associated with sufficient physical activity (PA) and consuming plant-based proteins. In addition, smoking was significantly associated with greater sleep disturbance and lower sleep quality. Participants that consumed vegetables, fruits, dates, and plant-based proteins reported better sleep quality. Infrequent consumption of delivered food and infrequent screen time were also associated with better sleep quality. Conflicting results were found regarding the impact of dining at home versus dining out on the three sleep parameters. Conclusion Increasing the intake of fruits, vegetables, and plant-based proteins are important factors that could help improve healthy sleep for those observing RF. In addition, regular PA and avoiding smoking may contribute to improving sleep during RF.




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Medicine and Health Sciences


Ramadan fasting, sleep, diet, lifestyle, circadian rhythm

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series