Document Type

Article

Source of Publication

F1000Research

Publication Date

1-1-2023

Abstract

The ongoing spread of antimicrobial resistance has complicated the treatment of bacterial hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Gram-negative pathogens, especially those with multidrug-resistant profiles, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter spp., are an important culprit in this type of infections. Understanding the determinants of resistance in pathogens causing pneumonia is ultimately stressing, especially in the shadows of the COVID-19 pandemic, when bacterial lung infections are considered a top priority that has become urgent to revise. Globally, the increasing prevalence of these pathogens in respiratory samples represents a significant infection challenge, with major limitations of treatment options and poor clinical outcomes. This review will focus on the epidemiology of HAP and VAP and will present the roles and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of implicated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens like carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), as well as colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales. While emerging from the COVID-19 pandemic, perspectives and conclusions are drawn from findings of HAP and VAP caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria in patients with COVID-19.

ISSN

2046-1402

Publisher

F1000 Research Ltd

Volume

12

Disciplines

Life Sciences

Keywords

hospital-acquired pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, antimicrobial resistance, Gram-negative multi-drug resistant pathogens

Scopus ID

85152931069

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Indexed in Scopus

yes

Open Access

yes

Open Access Type

Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series

Included in

Life Sciences Commons

COinS