Source of Publication
The ongoing spread of antimicrobial resistance has complicated the treatment of bacterial hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Gram-negative pathogens, especially those with multidrug-resistant profiles, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter spp., are an important culprit in this type of infections. Understanding the determinants of resistance in pathogens causing pneumonia is ultimately stressing, especially in the shadows of the COVID-19 pandemic, when bacterial lung infections are considered a top priority that has become urgent to revise. Globally, the increasing prevalence of these pathogens in respiratory samples represents a significant infection challenge, with major limitations of treatment options and poor clinical outcomes. This review will focus on the epidemiology of HAP and VAP and will present the roles and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of implicated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens like carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), as well as colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales. While emerging from the COVID-19 pandemic, perspectives and conclusions are drawn from findings of HAP and VAP caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria in patients with COVID-19.
F1000 Research Ltd
hospital-acquired pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, antimicrobial resistance, Gram-negative multi-drug resistant pathogens
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Hammoudi Halat, Dalal and Ayoub Moubareck, Carole, "Bacterial pneumonia associated with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens: Understanding epidemiology, resistance patterns, and implications with COVID-19" (2023). All Works. 5792.
Indexed in Scopus
Open Access Type
Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series