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Frontiers in Public Health

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The intricate relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes has garnered increasing attention within the medical community. Emerging evidence suggests that individuals with diabetes may experience heightened vulnerability to COVID-19 and, in some cases, develop diabetes as a post-complication following the viral infection. Additionally, it has been observed that patients taking cough medicine containing steroids may face an elevated risk of developing diabetes, further underscoring the complex interplay between these health factors. Based on previous research, we implemented deep-learning models to diagnose the infection via chest x-ray images in coronavirus patients. Three Thousand (3000) x-rays of the chest are collected through freely available resources. A council-certified radiologist discovered images demonstrating the presence of COVID-19 disease. Inception-v3, ShuffleNet, Inception-ResNet-v2, and NASNet-Large, four standard convoluted neural networks, were trained by applying transfer learning on 2,440 chest x-rays from the dataset for examining COVID-19 disease in the pulmonary radiographic images examined. The results depicted a sensitivity rate of 98 % (98%) and a specificity rate of almost nightly percent (90%) while testing those models with the remaining 2080 images. In addition to the ratios of model sensitivity and specificity, in the receptor operating characteristics (ROC) graph, we have visually shown the precision vs. recall curve, the confusion metrics of each classification model, and a detailed quantitative analysis for COVID-19 detection. An automatic approach is also implemented to reconstruct the thermal maps and overlay them on the lung areas that might be affected by COVID-19. The same was proven true when interpreted by our accredited radiologist. Although the findings are encouraging, more research on a broader range of COVID-19 images must be carried out to achieve higher accuracy values. The data collection, concept implementations (in MATLAB 2021a), and assessments are accessible to the testing group.




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Medicine and Health Sciences


COVID-19 disease, diabetes, transfer learning, disease detection, diagnosis using deep learning

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Open Access


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Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series