Manufacturing, characterization, and macromechanical modeling of short flax/hemp fiber-hybrid reinforced polypropylene

Document Type


Source of Publication

Forces in Mechanics

Publication Date



The present work focuses on the manufacturing, mechanical characterization, and modeling of hybrid Flax/Hemp/Polypropylene (PP) composites under dry conditions. Geometric parameters of the fibers were measured both before and after the melt processing. The results indicated that the processed fibers, especially the hybrid ones, had a narrowed length distribution with an average fiber length of 0.48 mm for hybrids compared to 0.62 mm for non-hybrids. The hybrid composites were mechanically characterized using basic and loading-unloading tensile tests with various fiber combinations and weight percentages. The study also examined the effect of strain rate and cutting angle on the behaviors of the composites. The results demonstrated the significance of fiber orientation as the primary factor in explaining mechanical variations. The tensile strength and Young's Modulus of FH30 composites (PP + 15 wt% flax + 15 wt% hemp) increased by about 24.1 % and 10.9 %, respectively, when the plates were cut into dumbbell shapes at a 90° angle to the injection molding flow direction, compared to a cut at 0° The study also showed that the tensile strength is directly proportional to the mass fraction of reinforcements, with an increase in tensile strength by 7.9 % for 0° cut angle specimens between FH10 (PP + 5 wt% flax + 5 wt% hemp) and FH30 bio-composites, while the uniform strain is inversely proportional to the mass fraction of reinforcements, evidenced by a reduction in uniform strain of 30 % between FH10 and FH30 samples. Morphological observations revealed the presence of bands indicating the propagation of micro-cracks, as well as debonding or cohesive failure. Finally, a Perzyna-type elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model was applied to accurately predict the overall mechanical response of a hybrid composite material. Specifically, the model successfully captured the tension deformation behavior of hybrid natural short-fiber thermoplastic composites, including the elastic stage, yield stress, and nonlinear hardening.




Elsevier BV






Damage mechanism, EVP constitutive model, Flax, Hemp, Hybrid composites, Mechanical characterization, Perzyna-type model

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Indexed in Scopus


Open Access


Open Access Type

Hybrid: This publication is openly available in a subscription-based journal/series

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