Civil Society in Egypt Under the Mubarak Regime

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Hamdy A. Hassan

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There is no doubt that most of the structural changes that took place in Egypt since the 23rd July 1952 army-led coup were operated from the top of the political pyramid and not as an expression of a mass movement. The same holds true for the restricted political diversity in the Sadat period, or the controlled liberal policies in the Mubarak regime. The controlled mode of change from above, conforms with the Pharaonic Political system described by Gamal Hemdan. The ruler or head of state in Egypt always enjoyed unlimited authority that borders on deification, and the legal and constitutional framework of the Egyptian state endorses this situation from 1971. This study aims to present an informed vision of the development of civil society in Egypt under Mubarak. The growing number of the NGOs could be seen as a sign of democratization. However, in a case like Egypt, it is a move towards consolidating authoritarianism.


Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Open Access