Source of Publication
© 2018, The Author(s). Cigarette smoking alters the oral microbiome; however, the effect of alternative tobacco products remains unclear. Middle Eastern tobacco products like dokha and shisha, are becoming globally widespread. We tested for the first time in a Middle Eastern population the hypothesis that different tobacco products impact the oral microbiome. The oral microbiome of 330 subjects from the United Arab Emirates Healthy Future Study was assessed by amplifying the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from mouthwash samples. Tobacco consumption was assessed using a structured questionnaire and further validated by urine cotinine levels. Oral microbiome overall structure and specific taxon abundances were compared, using PERMANOVA and DESeq analyses respectively. Our results show that overall microbial composition differs between smokers and nonsmokers (p = 0.0001). Use of cigarettes (p = 0.001) and dokha (p = 0.042) were associated with overall microbiome structure, while shisha use was not (p = 0.62). The abundance of multiple genera were significantly altered (enriched/depleted) in cigarette smokers; however, only Actinobacillus, Porphyromonas, Lautropia and Bifidobacterium abundances were significantly changed in dokha users whereas no genera were significantly altered in shisha smokers. For the first time, we show that smoking dokha is associated to oral microbiome dysbiosis, suggesting that it could have similar effects as smoking cigarettes on oral health.
Nature Publishing Group
cotinine; RNA 16S; adult; adverse event; dysbiosis; female; genetics; human; male; microbiology; microflora; mouth mucosa; pathology; questionnaire; smoking; tobacco use; United Arab Emirates; urine; waterpipe tobacco; Adult; Cotinine; Dysbiosis; Female; Humans; Male; Microbiota; Mouth Mucosa; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S; Smoking; Surveys and Questionnaires; Tobacco Use; Tobacco, Waterpipe; United Arab Emirates
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Vallès, Yvonne; Inman, Claire K.; Peters, Brandilyn A.; Ali, Raghib; Wareth, Laila Abdel; Abdulle, Abdishakur; Alsafar, Habiba; Anouti, Fatme Al; Dhaheri, Ayesha Al; Galani, Divya; Haji, Muna; Hamiz, Aisha Al; Hosani, Ayesha Al; Houqani, Mohammed Al; Junaibi, Abdulla Al; Kazim, Marina; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Mahmeed, Wael Al; Maskari, Fatma Al; Alnaeemi, Abdullah; Oumeziane, Naima; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Weitzman, Michael; Zaabi, Eiman Al; Sherman, Scott; Hayes, Richard B.; and Ahn, Jiyoung, "Types of tobacco consumption and the oral microbiome in the United Arab Emirates Healthy Future (UAEHFS) Pilot Study" (2018). All Works. 3797.
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Open Access Type
Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series