Document Type


Source of Publication

Future Internet

Publication Date



In the current Internet of things era, all companies shifted from paper-based data to the electronic format. Although this shift increased the efficiency of data processing, it has security drawbacks. Healthcare databases are a precious target for attackers because they facilitate identity theft and cybercrime. This paper presents an approach for database damage assessment for healthcare systems. Inspired by the current behavior of COVID-19 infections, our approach views the damage assessment problem the same way. The malicious transactions will be viewed as if they are COVID-19 viruses, taken from infection onward. The challenge of this research is to discover the infected transactions in a minimal time. The proposed parallel algorithm is based on the transaction dependency paradigm, with a time complexity O((M+NQ+Nˆ3)/L) (M = total number of transactions under scrutiny, N = number of malicious and affected transactions in the testing list, Q = time for dependency check, and L = number of threads used). The memory complexity of the algorithm is O(N+KL) (N = number of malicious and affected transactions, K = number of transactions in one area handled by one thread, and L = number of threads). Since the damage assessment time is directly proportional to the denial-of-service time, the proposed algorithm provides a minimized execution time. Our algorithm is a novel approach that outperforms other existing algorithms in this domain in terms of both time and memory, working up to four times faster in terms of time and with 120,000 fewer bytes in terms of memory.






Computer Sciences


Damage assessment, Information warfare, Malicious transactions, Transactions dependency

Scopus ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Indexed in Scopus


Open Access


Open Access Type

Gold: This publication is openly available in an open access journal/series